Increasing the feed efficiency of livestock and poultry is one of the main goals of experts in animal nutrition sciences. Due to the high cost of feed in livestock and poultry, this point is doubly important in farms. Therefore, in this article, we have discussed 5 effective strategies to improve and increase feed efficiency.
5 strategies to increase feed efficiency of livestock and poultry
Nutrition is one of the main parts of livestock and poultry breeding. Because more than 70% of their breeding costs are related to food. In this article, we have discussed practical solutions to achieve higher feed efficiency in livestock and poultry nutrition and have examined it from different aspects.
Today, the science of livestock and poultry breeding includes important branches such as nutrition, breeding and genetics, physiology, reproduction and veterinary medicine.
Nutrition is one of the first organized sciences and the main one. Because achieving maximum genetic capacity depends on optimal nutrition. Economically, more than 70% of the costs of a breeding unit are allocated to nutrition and feed preparation. Therefore, increasing productivity in nutrition is the key to greater profitability of livestock and poultry products.
Here are 5 ways to increase feed and poultry feed efficiency:
Importance of diet adjustment in increasing feed efficiency of livestock and poultry:
The nutritional needs of livestock and poultry have been identified in scientific research that has been done on them for years and have been approved by scientific authorities. The art of ration writing is to meet nutritional needs according to economic conditions.
Lower dietary levels of nutrients may reduce performance and weaken disease. For example, lack of energy compared to the desired level leads to weight loss, weakness, metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, ketosis and reduced production.
Being higher than the desired level of needs also causes obesity, decreased reproduction, low carcass quality, reduced production and metabolic diseases.
Mineral deficiencies can also cause disorders in growth, production, metabolism and locomotor systems. Mineral poisoning in various states will lead to antagonistic disorders, neurological problems, metabolic diseases, kidney damage, reduced food intake and even casualties.
For example, herbaceous tetanus is associated with livestock fed fresh fodder with high potassium levels. Potassium interacts with antagonism or magnesium. This means that high potassium in the feed increases the excretion of magnesium. Severe magnesium deficiency can lead to impaired nerve and muscle function, resulting in loss of livestock.
Human error or livestock access to free minerals are other causes of such poisoning.
Vitamin deficiencies, like mineral deficiencies, disrupt various body processes. Vitamin poisoning is often found in very high amounts of fat-soluble vitamins.
The nature of food sources in increasing feed efficiency of livestock and poultry
Energy and protein sources are different in nature. Wheat and barley starch have a higher digestibility than corn. Because it has simpler granular structures. However, the presence of high non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) such as beta-glucans and arabinosylans in wheat and barley causes digestive disorders and limits their use in the diet.
In ruminants, due to less digestion of corn starch in the rumen and the risk of acidosis due to rapid fermentation of carbohydrates, corn is superior to wheat and barley. Therefore, corn is the most valuable food source for energy supply in livestock and poultry.
Sepehr Makian Fartak Research and Development Group
In relation to protein food sources such as soy, rapeseed and other meal, in addition to digestibility, other important issues such as amino acid profiles that determine the biological value of feed are important.
The biological value of a protein source is determined by the presence of essential amino acids that limit growth and production, including methionine, lysine, threonine, valine, and.. The higher a dietary source of these amino acids, the higher its biological value.
Today, protein requirements in birds and ruminants are defined based on amino acids. The use of synthetic amino acids has therefore become common in animal and poultry feed.
The type of source and the composition of the minerals in the feed are effective in their absorption capacity. For example, the form of zinc hydroxychloride has a higher adsorption capacity than zinc oxide or sulfate.
Some minerals are absorbed through specific receptors (such as calcium). But the absorption of other minerals, especially trace elements, is very low.
This can be a problem for breeders who have higher mineral requirements.
For example, in mother and laying hens, mineral deficiency causes high number of cracked, broken or weakly shell eggs. Improper growth of chickens and foot problems will follow.
For this reason, the use of kelite minerals is recommended today. Chelates are the organic form of minerals, that is, they are composed of amino acids, peptides, or organic acids that have a higher absorption than the mineral form.
Feeding management and its effect on increasing feed productivity
Despite the use of a balanced diet and proper nutrients, nutrition management plays an important role in increasing the feed efficiency of livestock and poultry, some of which are discussed below.
Mix the feed
Feed animals should be provided with a complete mixture of all dietary components. Not homogeneous in poultry